christchurch earthquake 2011 vulnerability

It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. The greatest movement was upward and toward the northwest under the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. The unprecedented documentation available after this earthquake enables to validate different components of the model and disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors. Over the next few seconds the rupture spread upwards and towards the northwest, with the amount of slip increasing with time. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 … Christchurch City lies 40 km east of Darfield, and was home to a population of approximately 370,000 at the time of the earthquake. The rock on the south side of the fault has moved up and westward by as much as 2.5 metres relative to the rock on the north side of the fault. The M7.1 earthquake and associated aftershocks have caused extensive impacts on the local built, economic, social, and natural environments. There was extensive damage as a result of the MM9 shaking, particularly to buildings and infrastructure, but fortunately there were no deaths. It was centred 11 km beneath the rural town of Darfield, on the Greendale fault, which was previously unidentified. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. These instruments are designed specifically for recording strong ground shaking. The 22 Feb 2011 Christchurch Mw6.2 earthquake is an example that may well have been extreme but provides rationale for re-evaluating other examples of liquefaction worldwide and consideration of ground performance in relation to wider hydrogeological conditions and setting. The effectiveness of the method is tested comparing prediction with the effects observed in the city of Christchurch during the 22nd February 2011 earthquake. 2). The report looks at the architectural characteristics and seismic vulnerability of … A number of techniques were used to determine the fault’s position and movement. Compare Maps – Place any two of these maps side-by-side to use the slider to compare them. The AIR model incorporates detailed soil and groundwater Liquefaction Liquefaction is a well known natural process in Christchurch following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Christchurch building known to be vulnerable Peter Smith in Christchurch February 25 2011 The Canterbury Television building, where up to 120 people … Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on … Government, 2011], but only three earthquakes have resulted in reported damage to buildings. Colours on the fault plane indicate the amount of slip between the two sides of the fault (see Fig. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. Mapping liquefaction vulnerability for Christchurch City Posted on: November 5, 2020 at 3:26 PM Following the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010-2011 Tonkin + Taylor performed a large amount of geotechnical analysis for Christchurch City Council (CCC) and Environment Canterbury (ECan) to better understand possible liquefaction-induced damage under future earthquake … Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. The contour lines indicate the amount (in mm) the land has risen (blue contours) or subsided (red contours) due to the slip on the fault. The general region of fault slip is outlined by the aftershocks of the 22 February earthquake. Measuring 6.3 on the Richter Scale and, at 4.99 km deep, the earthquake was very shallow. An aftershock sequence was initiated, which included a catastrophic M w 6.3 earthquake on 22 February 2011 beneath the city of Christchurch, killing 185 people. Most of these casualties occurred as a result of the collapse of two large office buildings, with further deaths resulting from falling bricks and masonry, and rockfalls in city suburbs. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. Disaster Medicine … 36,000 water and wastewater service requests were received and addressed by Christchurch City Council (CCC), which owns and manages the city’s water and wastewater networks, in 5 months following the earthquake. Based on data from GPS stations, satellite radar images, seismographs and strong-motion recorders, the fault that caused the 22 February earthquake lies within about six kilometres of the city centre, along the southern edge of the city. Each colour cycle represents 1.5 centimetres of ground displacement, so the total displacement between the western edge of the image and central Christchurch is about 25 centimetres. Gregory Cole, Nawawi Chouw, Rajesh Dhakal, Building and bridge pounding damage observed in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.334-341, 44, 4, (334-341), (2011). Central, northern and northeastern Christchurch have also gone down, but generally by less than 5 centimetres. This earthquake struck at lunchtime on a working day, causing catastrophic damage to the city, and resulting in 185 deaths. The February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake, which occurred on a previously unknown fault, revealed silty soils vulnerable to widespread liquefaction and land damage, severely impacting the city’s central business district. 1) was about 14 kilometres long, and extends east-northeast from Cashmere to the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. In Christchurch, the student volunteers were driven not only by the immediate impact of an earthquake, but by a strong, youthful desire to make a difference (Hayward et al. AcknowledgementsFor discussions and sharing of early results: Pierre Briole, ENS, France; Marcello de Michele, BRGM, France; Eric Fielding, JPL, USA; SARmap group, Switzerland; INGV, Italy; GSI, Japan; Shaun Levick, Caroline Holden, Bill Fry, Stephen Bannister, Martin Reyners, all at GNS. The earthquake occurred on New Zealand’s South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. / Recent Events The Port Hills have gone up by varying amounts, from about 5 centimetres under Lyttelton Harbour to a maximum of about 25 centimetres at the base of the hills near the Heathcote valley. For processing of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh. As a direct result of the fault slip, the Bexley, Aranui, Wainoni, Avondale and New Brighton areas have gone down, mostly by less than 15 centimetres. 2020 Edition of the New Zealand Critical Lifelines Infrastructure National Vulnerability Assessment ... Corrective Action Plan following the Review of the Civil Defence and Emergency Management Response to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake (.pdf 172kb) Get the latest information about our emergency status from your social media channels. Published by Elsevier Ltd. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.014. On 22 February 2011, an earthquake rocked Christchurch on New Zealand’s South Island, killing 185 people and causing widespread damage. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. For CSK satellite radar data: e-GEOS, an ASI/Telespazio company, especially Andrea Celentano. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Because the fault doesn’t break the surface, the land overlying the top of the fault has been slightly folded, with the south side warped upward and the north side down (see Fig. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. Then, more than five months after the mainshock, on 22 February 2011, a M6.3 aftershock occurred 5 km south-east of Christchurch at a depth of only 5 km. A case study of an earthquake in a HIC.. What caused the Christchurch earthquake? The government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. As a result of the 2010/2011 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes, Reinforced Concrete Frame with Masonry Infill (RCFMI) buildings experienced a level of damage that was different to that observed for other construction systems. The on-going aftershocks have also caused a disrupted environment in which to recover. Position data from GPS stations (Fig. The review is of the response from the date of the earthquake until 30 April 2011. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. An overview of the impacts of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes. The second and more devastating earthquake occurred the following year on February 22, 2011, within the Christchurch City Centre at a depth of just 5 kilometres and a magnitude of 6.3. Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. The Canterbury earthquake sequence taught us that some land damage is visible, such as cracking and undulation (where the land has moved in an up-and-down movement resulting in a wavy shape). The red, green and yellow coloured symbols show some of the GPS stations whose displacements were used to derive the fault slip model. 3). A magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury Region of New Zealand at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010. Other Maps – General information about ground conditions across Christchurch. However, there may be additional subsidence as a result of ground compaction and liquefaction during the strong shaking. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 2). 2011). Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. We have conducted a survey of damage to 160 buildings from the M6.2 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake to estimate earthquake intensities produced by this very significant earthquake. The close proximity and shallow depth of this event resulted in higher intensity shaking in Christchurch with respect to the Darfield event in September 2010 [1]. The main part of the fault thus lies beneath the northern edge of the Port Hills. 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